The harmonized system is an international nomenclature, developed by the World Customs Organization, which is included in six-digit codes allowing all participating countries to classify goods traded on a common basis. 24.The Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights Agreement (TRIPS), which came into force on 1 January 1995, is a comprehensive multilateral agreement on intellectual property among all members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). It sets minimum standards for the regulation of many forms of intellectual property by national governments. 30.Au the initial negotiations, the UK government has estimated the benefits to the UK economy of about $1 billion. It found that, given the effectiveness of customs procedures in the UK, the benefits to the UK would likely be less than for other EU Member States, but that British traders would benefit from faster customs clearance times for their products in other countries. The protocol and cover schedule for modified products can be downloaded here. 18.The three international conventions taken into account in this report are previous multilateral or multilateral agreement protocols.8 In any event, the United Kingdom is already a party to the original agreement, but is only a party to the protocol because of its membership of the EU. This apparent anomaly is explained in field 1. 8 Within the WTO, a multi-lateral agreement is an agreement involving only a few members, while a multilateral agreement involves all members.

Although the United Kingdom is a member of the World Trade Organization and a signatory to the (plurilateral) agreement on civil air trade, it is currently bound by the three protocols that this report considers only as a Member State of the European Union. This obvious discrepancy can be explained by the fact that the content of international trade agreements and the extent of EU powers have evolved over time. 13 Council decision of 19 November 2007 on the adoption, on behalf of the European Community, of the protocol amending the TRIPS agreement of 6 December 2005 (2007/768/CE), JO L 347 of 31.12.2007, p. 13. Jo L 311 (29 November 2007), p. 35, on the basis of Article 133, paragraph 5, in connection with Article 300, paragraph 3 of the EC Treaty, the EU has long been the only one with jurisdiction over common trade policy. However, the scope of early trade agreements was limited and, when WTO agreements were negotiated in the early 1990s, the Commission and Member States disagreed on the extent to which the EU was responsible for the conclusion of the new agreements. La Cour de justice a été invitée à se prononcer sur cette question et a décidé: que l`Union européenne (alors la Communauté) et ses États membres étaient « conjointement compétents » tant en ce qui concerne l`accord général sur le commerce des services (AGCS) que l`accord SUR les ADPIC.91 Décision (UE) 2017/446 du 3 mars 2017 relative à la conclusion du protocole (2015) modifiant, au nom de l`Union européenne, l`annexe de l`accord sur le commerce des aéronefs civils, JO L 327 du 28.1.2013, p.

JO L 69 (15 mars 2017), p. 1, sur la base de l`article 207, paragraphe 4, en liaison avec l`article 218, paragraphe 6, point a), de l`accord sur le commerce des aéronefs civils L`accord sur le commerce des aéronefs civils est l`un des accords plurilatéraux de l`OMC; it came into force on January 1, 1980. The agreement eliminates import tariffs on civilian aircraft on its product list, such as engines, radars, flight recorders and ground flight simulators. The agreement also contains disciplines on issues such as the purchase of civilian aircraft by the state and incentives to purchase.